The fall and rebirth of Cybernetics
During the past 30 years has passed cybernetics cycle ups and downs, becoming increasingly important in the field of artificial intelligence and biological machine interfaces (ie cyborg), and when the study has lost support, the region as a whole lost of its core areas.
In the 1970's new cybernetics manifested in many areas, first in biology. Some biologists under the influence of cybernetic concepts (Maturana and Varela, 1980; Varela, 1979; Atlan, 1979), realized that the cybernetic metaphors program, which is based on molecular biology, is a concept of autonomy is impossible for living beings. Consequently, these thinkers had to invent a new cybernetics, more suitable for organizations which humanity finds in nature - of which he himself did not invent. The possibility of this new cybernetics can also be forms of social organization has remained the subject of debate among theorists on the self in the 1980th.
As a political science project Cybersyn tried to enter cyber administrative command economy during the early 1970's. In the 1980's, unlike its predecessor, the new cybernetic self-interested interaction of political figures and groups, and practical and reflexive consciousness of creating and reproducing the structure of the political community. The main view - considering recursive, or self-reliance of political speeches, as in the expression of political consciousness, and the ways in which systems are based on themselves.
Geyer and van der Zouwen in 1978 discussed the many features of the emerging "new cybernetics". One feature of the new cybernetics - that it considers the information as-built and restored a man interacts with the environment. This ensures the epistemological foundation of science, seeing it as dependent on the observer. Another feature of the new cybernetics - its contribution to the joint "mikromakro-space". Thus, it binds to the human society. Geyer and van der Zouwen also noted that the transition from classical to new cybernetics cybernetics leads to a shift from the classical problems to new problems. These changes in the balance include, among others, changes of emphasis on the control system to control, and factors which sends control solutions. And the new emphasis on communication between several systems that attempt to manage each other.
Recent efforts in the true direction of cybernetics, a control system and behavior in infancy, such related fields as game theory (the analysis of group interaction), and Metamaterials (the study of materials with properties outside Newton properties of their constituent atoms), a system of feedback in evolution, and metamaterial (the study of materials with the properties of Newtonian properties of their constituent atoms), have led to a revival of interest in this increasingly important field.