Cybernetics

Review

   The term cybernetics comes from the Greek (kybernetes, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder - odnokorennye with the word government). Computer Science - a broad area of research, but the main goal of cybernetics is to understand and define the processes and systems that have a purpose, and that participate in circular, causal chains, which move from action to perception, and compared with a desirable goal, and then to act. Research in cybernetics provide a means to study the structure and functions of any system, including social systems, such as business management and organizational study, including the intention to make them more effective. Cybernetics was defined by Norbert Wiener in the same book as the study of communication and control of animal and machine. Stafford Beer called it the science of effective organization, and Gordon of Pasco has expanded to incorporate the flow of information "from any source" from stars to brains. It includes the study of feedback, black boxes and derived concepts such as interaction and control in living organisms, machines and organization, including self. His goal - it was anything (digital, mechanical or biological) processes information, responds to the information, and may change or be changed to better fulfill the first two objectives. A more philosophical definition proposed in the 1956 Louis Couffignal, one of the pioneers of cybernetics, characterizes cybernetics as "the art of effective action". The new definition was proposed to Louis Kauffman, president of the American Society of Cybernetics, "Cybernetics - the study of systems and processes that interact with themselves and reproduce themselves".

   The concepts taught kibernetchikami (cyberneticists or, as some prefer, cyberneticians), include, but are not limited to: studying, learning, adaptation, social control, emergence, communication, performance and relationship. These concepts are studied by other subjects such as engineering and biology, but in cybernetics, they are separated from the context of an individual organism or device.

   Other areas of research that influenced or were influenced by cybernetics include game theory, systems theory (mathematical equivalent of cybernetics), psychology, especially neuropsychology, behaviourism, cognitive psychology, philosophy, anthropology, and even the architecture.

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