Roots of Cybernetic theory
Word of Science, first used in the context of "self-study" Plato in the "laws" (The piece is written in the form of Plato's dialogue. It consists of 12 books.), To refer to people management. Words operate govern, governor and the governor associated with the same Greek root through the Latin family gubernare and gubernator. The word "cybernetique" used practically in the modern meaning in 1830 the French physicist, Andre Ampere sistematizatorom sciences (Andre-Marie Ampere, 1775-1836), to refer to science management in its system of classification of human knowledge:
"CYBERNETICS. The people of the people studied <...> previous science - only a small fraction of objects, which should take care the government, it requires continuous attention to the maintenance of public order, enforcement of laws, equitable distribution of taxes, the selection of e from a source such as a stabilizing tank in the pool, then out of the pool for hours arrangements. The device used a cone Ktesibios's flow, to control the water level in its reservoir, and adjust the flow rate of water, respectively, to maintain a constant level of water in the reservoir, so that it was neither crowded nor drained. This was the first truly automatic self-regulating artificial device, which does not require any external interference between the feedback and control mechanisms. Although they are not referred to this concept as a Computer Science (they thought this area of engineering), Ktesibios and others such as Heron (Geron Alexandria) and Su Song, is believed to be among the first who studied cybernetic principles. The study focused tools (from the Greek telos or to the end, goal, or appointment) in machines with corrective feedback dates back to even the end of XVIII century, when James Watt steam engine was equipped with controlling device, the centrifugal valve feedback to control the speed of the engine . Alfred Russel Wallace has identified this as a principle of evolution in his famous work of 1858. In 1868 James Clerk Maxwell published a theoretical article on managing devices, one of the first reviewed and improved principles of intelligent devices. Jakob von Uexkull applied a feedback mechanism in their model of the functional cycle (Funktionskreis), to explain the behavior of animals and the origin of values in general.