Scope of Cybernetics
The object of cybernetics are all managed systems. The systems are not manageable, in principle, are not objects of study of cybernetics. Science introduces concepts such as the cybernetic approach, Cyber system. Cybernetic systems are considered in an abstract way, regardless of their physical nature. Examples of cybernetic systems - automatic control of machinery, computers, human brain, biological populations, the human society. Each system is a set of interrelated objects (elements) that are able to perceive, store and process information, as well as share it. Cybernetics develops general principles for the establishment of management systems and systems for automation of mental labor. The main technical tools for solving problems of cybernetics - the computer. Therefore, the emergence of cybernetics as an independent science (N. Wiener, 1948) related to the creation of 40-ies. 20. these machines, and development of cybernetics in the theoretical and practical aspects - the progress of electronic computing.
Cybernetics is an interdisciplinary science. It emerged at the intersection of mathematics, logic, semiotics, physiology, biology, sociology. It is inherent in the analysis and identification of common principles and approaches in scientific knowledge. The most significant theories, united in cyberspace, are the following:
The theory of signal transmission
The theory of automata
The theory of decision-making
The theory of algorithms
Recognition of images
The theory of optimal control
In addition to fund analysis, cybernetics uses powerful tools for the synthesis of solutions provided by aid of mathematical analysis, linear algebra, the geometry of convex sets, probability theory and mathematical statistics, as well as more applied areas of mathematics such as mathematical programming, econometrics, computer science and other disciplines derivatives.